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* * * * * * 1800 - 1829 * * * * * *

HARTSELL - 1800-1829

See "Evidence for Ancestry of David Hartzell" and "The Life of David Hartzell 1805-1865" for the latest and more detailed information on David Hartzell.

From Settlement Map, NW Franklin County, Virginia, 1786-1886
Made for the Franklin County Historical Society; Mrs. Gertrude C. Mann, Historian-Researcher, 1/1/1976

1810 Census heads of households (all in Franklin County, Virginia):

Adam Heartsell                             - Phillip's son, David's father
Phillip Heartsell (over 45 years old)      - Adam's father
George Heartsell (m. Sussanah Toney)       - Adam's cousin
For Philip Hartzell, the 1810 Franklin County Virginia Census shows on page 594:

1 male 45 & over   - Philip Heartsell   b. before 1765
1 female 45 & over - Christina Barbara  b. before 1765
1 male 16-25       - Frederick?         b. 1785-1794
1 male 10-15       - ?                  b. 1794-1800
1 female 10-15     - ?                  b. 1794-1800
In the 1810 Franklin County Virginia census, Phillip "Heartsell" is listed 16 households from Solomon and Jacob Altick, 4 households from Moses Greer, Jr., 3 households from Jonathan Griffith, 8 households from Benjamin Griffith, 9 from Abram Griffith, 10 from David Goode, Sr. (note 1823 marriage of George Hartzell to Nancy Goode), and 11 from Moses Greer, Sr. It seems Phillip Hartzell was near Gogginsville, south of Boones Mill, and just north of Rocky Mount. He could have been on the land he purchased in 1792, or the land his son Abraham Hartzell purchased in 1796.

The Adam Hartzell family lived northwest of Rocky Mount, Franklin County, Virginia, from about 1792 to 1815. In 1810, going by neighboring names in the 1810 census, and the names on the Franklin County Settlement Map above, they were living in the Blackwater River Valley almost due west of Boones Mill, and west of Cahas Mountain. Adam Hartzell was living near John Webster, James McVey, Samuel Webster, and John Webster. Eight names from Adam is the George Hartzell who married Susannah Toney in 1809. William Toney is nearby. The double dashed line (a road) running up from east of Algoma and past Dillons Mill is now called Dillons Mill Road (route 643). At Blackwater Chapel, the road follows Paynes Creek, and is now called Flanders Road. From Blackwater Chapel, no road is shown going up the Blackwater River, but it is now a continuation of Dillons Mill Road. According to Mapquest directions from Boones Mill, go west on Bethlehem Road for 5.1 miles. Turn right on Dillon's Mill Road. Dillon's Mill Road alternately becomes VA-643 and back to Dillon's Mill. Go 5.1 miles to what would be 4500 Dillon's Mill Road. Adam Hartzell lived about where Key Gap Road is now located, or maybe a little south of that. As of this writing, you can go to, and get a map for 4500 Dillons Mill Road. That isn't a real address, but where it would be if there was a house there. Use Aerial View to see what the valley looks like, and how narrow it is. You can drag the image to see what the valley looks like farther south. It's not very wide.

A fascinating document is Merle Rummel's "The Virginia Settlement or the Four Mile Church of the Brethren", currently online at If not there, try doing a Google search. It tells of many of the families in this area and their migration to the Miami River Valley in Montgomery County, Ohio (where Adam goes in 1815), and Union County, Indiana (where George and Susannah (Toney) Hartsell went around the same time). It was the Lybrook, Toney, Moss, Miller, Kingery, Webster families, some of whom left before 1810 and were not in the 1810 Franklin County VA census. One wonders if some of these people came to Virginia as a group from Pennsylvania. Notable is Rev. (Elder) Jacob Miller just north of where Adam Hartzell lived. He went to the Dayton, Ohio area in 1802. About 3 miles NE of Ellerton, Ohio is the Jacob Miller cemetery, presumably the location of his church. Also notable is Edmund Moss (not on the map, but in the 1810 VA census). He lived next door to George (m. Susannah Toney), and then Edmund's son William was next door to George in Union County, Indiana in 1830. Phillip Lybrook moved to Union County, Indiana in 1806.

Our ancestor David Hartzell was born in this area of Virginia November 20, 1805 (date derived from gravestone). This was during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, whose term in office was 1801-1809. It was also during the Lewis & Clark expedition (1804-1806). Most of the United States was still unexplored wilderness. The Declaration of Independence had been signed only 29 years before David Hartzell was born.

The 1810 Census for Franklin County Virginia shows in the household for Adam Heartsell:

1 male 26-45     - Adam
1 female 26-45   - Christina
1 male 16-20     - John
1 male 16-20     - Jacob?
1 male 10-16     - George (m. Nancy Goode)? - not Jonas, s/o Adam & Sara Hartzell.
1 daughter 10-16 - Elizabeth?
1 male under 10  - Leonard
1 male under 10  - Daniel?
1 male under 10  - David
Son Phillip now had his own household; he is on the same page as Adam.
Catherine must have married.
As described in detail in the Hartsell 1700's section, there is strong evidence that David's next older brother could have been D. (Daniel?) A. Hartzell. We found him in 1860 Storrs Township (now Lower Price Hill), Cincinnati, Ohio, 40 miles south of Ellerton, Ohio. He was born in 1802 in Virginia. He was keeper of a boarding house, and no wife was listed. Not finding him in the 1840 & 1850 census implies he was unmarried and not head of a household.

From "Marriage Bonds of Franklin County, Virginia" after 1800:

George Hartzell and Sussanah Toney 3/28/1809     - Adam's cousin.
     Surety was James Toney 
     See 1830's section for Union County 
     Indiana and James Alexander connection.
Jacob Hartzell and Hannah Capper 11/19/1816      - David's brother
     Surety was Jacob Wimmer
George Hartzell and Nancy Goode 6/2/1823         - in David's generation
     Surety was Cornelius Kinsey
George Hartzell and Sally Clark 7/22/1838        - in David's generation
     Surety was Otey Hambrick
From correspondence with Rev. Merle Rummel, Susannah Toney's surety and apparent father or brother may have been the James Toney who stayed behind in Virginia when the other Toneys went to Union County, Indiana.

Adam's father, Johann Philip Hartzell, died around 1815 near Rocky Mount, Virginia. The time of his death may have played a role as to when Adam Hartzell decided to "follow everyone else" to Ohio.

David's brother Jacob Hartzell married Hannah Capper in 1816 in Franklin County, Virginia. They stayed behind in Virginia. David's uncle Abraham, already in Virginia by 1796, married Eve Houtz in Franklin County in 1796 and went to Ohio about 1805, seemingly without Eve.


From Paul Swan's "Hartsell Chapter". Adam and Christina's daughter Kate (Catherine) married a man named Burlachers who fled to Ohio to escape service in the War of 1812. Adam and his family followed in 1815, leaving Virginia Sep. 1, 1815, and arriving in Germantown, Montgomery county, Ohio, on Christmas day. JDH: Son David was 10 years old. It took them just over sixteen weeks, their covered wagon probably having been drawn by oxen. Their most likely route was west-southwest to the Kentucky border, then west along the main wilderness trail, or circling south into Tennessee over a slightly longer but easier route. They then would have gone north through the Cumberland Gap, across the Cumberland river a little way west, and then turned and made their way due north, up Boone's road and beyond across the Ohio River into western Ohio. This would have amounted to about a 480 mile trek, at a little over four miles per day.

From Paul Swan's "Hartsell Chapter". It seems possible that Adam's younger brother Abraham had preceeded him to Ohio by a decade. An Abraham Hartzel purchased federal land just north of Germantown, Montgomery, Ohio, Mar. 25, 1805. It could well be that it was Adam's objective to join his younger brother. The Hartzell Ancestral Line says "We believe" that Abraham, as a very young man, was one of a group of about fifteen men who formed a fishing and hunting camp there, but left when the settlers came and formed the town of Germantown. He then later returned to the area, as he is buried in Ellerton, six miles north of Germantown.

From Paul Swan's "Hartsell Chapter". When Adam and Christina moved to Ohio in 1815, they may have been following her relatives as well as his. Several men recorded as Sink, Sinkes, and Sinks had entered federal land there about a decade earlier. Charles Sinks was the earliest, entering land Dec. 31, 1801 in Hamilton county, and George Sink Nov. 10, 1804 and Jan. 15, 1805 entered land in Montgomery county. George's land was some twenty miles north of Germantown, Montgomery, to which Adam first headed on their trek west. George was probably the uncle of Adam's wife Christina. JDH: This George Sink was from Randolph County, North Carolina.

Available from the Brookville Historical Society, Brookville, Ohio, are plat maps of Original Land Purchases. Virtually all the land in Montgomery County was taken by the end of 1804.

The Butler Township map shows George Sink (actual spelling), in the SE quarter of section 2, 11-10-1804 (mentioned above), near the Stillwater River. This is at the north center of Montgomery County. This must be where Adam Hartzell headed on their trek west. The Jackson Township map, just west of Jefferson Township, shows Jacob Sinks, in the NE 1/4 of section 31, 4-24-1804.

The Troutt family web page for Sink/Zink families has Paul Sink, brother of Abraham & Stephen Sink of Franklin County, Virginia, moving to North Carolina about 1778, in the Salisbury area of Rowan County. George Sink was in nearby Randolph County, North Carolina. Both these locations are about 4 counties south of Franklin County, Virginia. This family is very likely related to Adam's wife Christina.

More on George Sink: The 1882 History of Montgomery County, Ohio, by W. H. Beers & Company, for Butler Township, has "The families of George Sinks and Henry Yount, hailing from the same neighborhood in North Carolina, immigrated to the Stillwater settlement in 1802, locating, the former in Section 2, ..., where he entered 320 acres of land. ... July 30, 1816, was organized a religious society, ..., known as the Lower Stillwater Church of Christ. The original members were George Sinks, and wife Sarah, ...

The 1820 Butler Township, Montgomery County, Ohio Census has the family:
George Sink (actual spelling)
1 male under 10
2 males age 10-15
1 male age 16-17
1 male age 18-26
1 male age 26-44 (George)
2 females under 10
1 female 10-15
1 female age 26-44 (Sarah)
3 family members engaged in agriculture.

Elder Jacob Miller, neighbor of Adam Hartzell in Franklin County, VA, arrived at the Miami River Valley (Dayton, Ohio area) in 1802. There is a Jacob Miller cemetery about three miles northwest of Ellerton, in Jefferson Township, Montgomery County, Ohio. In 1806, Phillip Lybrook, another Virginia neighbor of Adam Hartzell, was in Union County, Indiana. In 1820 Phillip's daughter Sarah married James Toney, also of Franklin County, VA, in Union County, Indiana. James Toney was a grandson of William and Margaret (Sutherland) Toney. There were marriages between the Lybrook, Kingery, Toney, Moss, Webster, McVey, Miller, Capper and Henderson families, all from the Blackwater River Valley area of Franklin County, Virginia.

In their first year in Ohio, the family must have wondered if they made a mistake. Mt. Tambora erupted and covered the earth with clouds of ash. It was winter in summer that year.

Note that at this time, Connersville, Indiana, 30 miles west, was a small Indiana station on the outposts of the white settlements.

Adam Hartzell's son Philip and others in the family moved later to Miami county, while some went to Anderson, Indiana, where the remains of their covered wagon still exist. Their son Leonard moved to Rush County Indiana about 1832.

1820 Virginia Census heads of households (all in Franklin County, Virginia):

Jacob Hartzel (married Hannah Capper above)
Phillip Hartzel
1830 Virginia Census heads of households:

Jacob Hartzell (Franklin County, Virginia, m. Hannah Capper)
George Hartzell (Franklin County, Virginia, m. Nancy Goode)
Jacob Hartzell (Preston County, West Virginia)
The above George Hartzell also stayed behind in Virginia because in the 1840 census there is a Hannah Hartzell and a Nancy Hartzell, both widows. The listing was alphabetized, so we can't tell if they were living near each other.

The 1820 Ohio census shows 14 Hartsell households.


The 1820 Montgomery County Ohio Census, Jefferson Township, shows for the Adam Hartzell family (p. 116):

1 male 45+       - Adam Hartsell   
1 female 45+     - Christina 
1 male 16-26     - Must be Leonard, age 21
1 male 16-26     - D. (Daniel?) A. Hartsell (age 17-18)?
1 male 10-16     - Must be David, age 14

In 1820, Adam Hartzell was living next door to Moses Rentfro, his son-in-law who married Elizabeth ("Betsy"). Nearby was Jacob Mullendore, Adam's son-in-law who married Katrina ("Kate"). Also in the area was Peter Heck, probably related to the Susannah Heck who married Adam's brother John. (Susannah's father was Abraham Heck.) A John Noffsinger could be the one who lived just north of Adam in Virginia.

The 1830 Montgomery County Ohio Census, Jefferson Township, shows for the Adam Hartzell family (p. 235):

1 male 60-69     - Adam Hartsell b. 1761-1770
1 female 60-69   - Christina
1 male 30-39     - (census error) could be Daniel Hartsell age 20-29 (age 27-28)
1 male 30-39     - (census error) assumed to be David Hartsell age 20-29 (age 24)
As explained before, this page in the census has many corrections, and it is obvious the census taker marked the wrong column for the two younger males in the household. In 1830, Adam Hartzell was living in the same place, going by similar neighbor's names in the census. 7 households away was John Heck. 11 and 12 households away were his sons Leonard Hartzell and John Hartzell (m. Susannah Heck).

Erroneous information all over the internet says that Adam married a second time, in Montgomery, Ohio, to Mary Spiekard. THIS IS WRONG. It was an Adam Hutzel who married Mary Spikard 8/10/1826.

It is believed that Adam and Christina were buried at Ellerton, north of Germantown, but that their graves were destroyed when Hemple Road was straightened.

David's brother Leonard married Delilah Weiss around 1825 in Montgomery County, Ohio.

Again, erroneous information all over the internet says that David Hartzell married Margaret Nieval in Montgomery County, Ohio in 1830. THIS IS WRONG. It was a David Hetzel, born 1806, son of John and Catharina (Thomas) Hetzel.

NIPP - 1800-1829

From Settlement Map, West Wythe County, Virginia.
Phillip or Peter Knipp above, Verner Knipp below.

Verner Knip should be listed in the 1800 Pennsylvania or Virginia census since he was married and had children by then. He would have been "over 34" in 1800. He was in Wythe County by 1815. If John, George and Adam where Vernerís sons, he could have been in Wythe County by 1807.

John Nipp married Dolly Cleaves in 1807 in Wythe County Virginia.

Possibly from Mary Kegley's "The Lost Children of Wythe Co." is this:
In 1804 a Wythe County petition protesting the obstruction of a dam erected by Andrew and James Crockett - signed by Warner, John, and Phllip Knipp.
In 1807 Phillip Knopp and Catherine Lindemuth sponsored Rachel, born June 20, 1807, baptized Sept. 6, 1807, daughter of Jonathan and Catherine Lydy.

George Nipp married Rebeccah Townsend in Wythe County, Virginia. The marriage bond was dated Jan. 7, 1809 and Rebeccah is identified as the daughter of John Townsend. Adam Knipp and John Townsend served as sureties for the marriage. This could imply that Adam was George's father.

According to son John's biographical sketch, George and Rebecca Nipp had four children in Wythe County, Virginia: Nancy, John (born 1811), Jane, Martha. Born in Indiana were William, Leonidas, Reuben, and Anna.

Adam Knipp is not in the Virginia Census, but his daughter Catherine was married in Wythe County in 1809. Varner Knipp was a surety.

In the 1810 Census for Virginia, we have:

        Wythe County
        Head of Household: Verner Knip
        In household:
                male, age over 44    (b. bef. 1766)
                female, age over 44
                male 16-25      Peter? (age 26-44 in 1820)
                male 16-25      
                female 16-25
                male 10-15
                female 10-15

Phillip was 35 in 1810 (75 in 1850), and is not listed as head of a household, but maybe he was out on his own. He may have married shortly after 1810; his children were born after 1810. Adam is also not listed. George and John had their own households in 1810:

        Wythe County
        Head of Household: George Knip 
        In household:
                male, age 16-25
                female, age 16-25
                male under 10   
                female under 10
                female under 10

        (Note: This George had 3 children born between
        1800-1810 which doesn't fit with "Uncle" George.)

        Wythe County
        Head of Household: John Knip 
        In household:
                male, age 16-25
                female, age 16-25
                female under 10

Verner Knipp settled sometime after 1811 in Sinking Springs, Green County, Tennessee. He and his wife along with some of his children are buried in Sinking Springs Cemetery.

From "Anserchin" Newsletter, vol 36, page 148: A petition protesting the Constable's fee was signed on Feb. 2, 1813 in Green County Tennessee by Varner Knipp and John Knipp.

From Wythe Co Court Orders:
1813 - Call court for the examination of John Call for striking Verner Knipp across the right eye and by this act disfiguring and disabling said eyelid of Knipp; case dismissed. 12-18-1813.
1818 - Adam Leonard Senr and Varner Knipp who are charged with burning the barn belonging to Elijah Elliott on 12-21, are held over for the Superior Court, not bailable. 12-26-1818.
1819 - David Dillman allowed $2.25 for guarding Adam Leonard and Varner Knipp in the Wythe jail. 06-08-1819.
1819 - Reubin Harrell allowed for guarding Leonard and Knipp at the Wythe County jail, for burning a barn, $0.75; Peter Stephens, constable, allowed $3.99 for summoning witnesses. 08-11-1819.

Vernerís possible brother George Knip was in Penns Township, Northumberland County Pennsylvania in 1800. His household lists his age as over 45, wife over 45, and 7 children with ages from under 10 to 25 years old. "Uncle" George would have been 25 or 26 years old, depending on when the census was taken. It is unknown whether "uncle" George was the son of Verner or George (Sr.).

Barbara Nipp, future wife of David Hartzell, was born Dec. 17, 1815 in Wythe County, Virginia.

From Mary B. Kegley: "From St. John's Lutheran Church records published years ago (1960) by F. B. Kegley and Mary B. Kegley, p. 29, you will find the following: BARBARA, born Dec. 17, 1815, parents Philip Knop, and Catharine, baptized Feb. 4, 1816, sponsors, Philip Knop and Catharine. The "o" in Knop had an umlaut or two little marks over it. The name was translated Knipp. There are others in the same record book. The originals of the church records are housed at our local community college library." (JDH - in Wytheville?)

In the History section below there is a piece about the lead & salt mines and the 1807 shot tower in Wytheville. This gives a clue on possible occupations of the people of Wythe County.

From Mary B. Kegley: "There are no salt mines in Wythe County, but they are in Smyth County the next county west. The shot tower is as you describe but the date does not appear to be correct, because the man who built it did not own the land until 1815, so it was built some time after that date. Also the Molly Tynes story is probably not true although there is great controversy about it. The earliest we can find the story is about 50 years after the WAR...and then we have several garbled stories, none of which match! The Knipps were not working at the mines.... they lived in the western end of the county and the mines were more than 20 miles to the east. I believe they were farmers."

"Uncle" George Nipp had arrived in Connersville, Indiana in 1815 according to his son Johnís biographical sketch (see Appendix). He was supposedly in Tennessee in 1814. John Nipp, born in November 1811 in Wythe County, was probably Barbaraís cousin. George Nipp & his family are listed in the 1820 Indiana Census - Fayette County, Jackson Township (just south of Jennings Township). George bought land in Rush County, Indiana on December 11, 1821 (Tract Book page 55).

In the 1820 Virginia census, we have:

        Wythe County, page 217
        Head of Household: Phillip Knipp 
        In household:
                male, age 26-44      (Phillip)
                female, age 26-44    (Catherine)
                male under 10        Andrew?
                female under 10      Milly?
                female under 10      Barbara?
                female under 10      Chrisena?
                female under 10      Rebecca?

See NIPP 1830ís for evidence of names of Phillipís children.

LINDEMUTH - 1800-1829

Nothing on Lindemuth for this time period.

WALKER - 1800-1829

William Walker married Jane Corbet April 1, 1802, in Ross County, Ohio. This is based on a marriage record of William Walker and "Ginny" Corbet on that date in that county (book A of ?, page 15). "Ginny" could easily be "Janie" and the name written wrong. At the time of their marriage, William would have been 24 or 25 years old, and Jane 19 or 20.

Note that Ohio became a state in 1803.

In 1805, Highland County, Ohio, which touches Ross County on the west and south, was formed from parts of Ross, Adams, and Clermont Counties. In 1810, Fayette County, which touches Ross on the west and south, was created. This is the county Joseph Walker was born in.

Tax lists in 1810 Fayette County Ohio list a Charles Walker (and also a William Corbett - see Corbet below) in Union township.

1820 Indiana Census does not list any William who is clearly ours. 1820 Fayette County Ohio Census: unknown if "our" William, but a really close fit:

        Fayette County, Union Township, page 4B
                William Walker, head of household
                Male: 45+ (William?)    
                Male: 16-26             
                Male: 16-18             
                Male: 10-16
                Male: 10-16
                Male: under 10
                Male: under 10
                Male: under 10
                Female: 26-45 (Jane?)
                Female: under 10
                Female: under 10

According to son John's biographical sketch (see Appendix), William Walker fought in the War of 1812.

Joseph Walker was born March 11, 1814 in Fayette County, Ohio.

According to John's biographical sketch, William Walker moved to Fayette County, Jennings Township, Indiana in 1819 with their two children, Henry and William. Joseph Walker was 5 years old, but isn't named in the sketch. The sketch on Joseph Walker says they came when he was about nine, around 1823. The sketch on Joseph's brother John says that when they were young, they lived in the woods and were engaged in clearing, both in Ohio and Indiana.

See "History of Fayette County, Indiana" in the Appendix - very interesting.

Here is something very significant, and it meshes with the above paragraph. In 1821, when Indianapolis was a swampy settlement, and 5 years after Indiana statehood, William Walker purchased 120 acres in Jennings Township (Fayette County, Indiana) "of the lands directed to be sold at Cincinnati". It was part of the SE 1/4 Sect. 21 Twp. 14 Range 13E (Deed Record Book A, page 449, Fayette County Courthouse, Connersville, Ind.). It was purchased for $1000 on Dec. 31, 1821. Since William's son James was born in Ohio in 1823, and son Samuel born in Indiana in 1825, maybe William bought the land in Indiana but didn't settle permanently until 1824 (or didn't bring the smaller children until then). Another significant thing is that this is in the same section where David Hartzell lived in 1850 and bought land in 1853 (in NE 1/4). One wonders if David Hartsell already knew William Walker, perhaps from Ohio, or met him after he arrived separately in Indiana.

In 1828, William Walker purchased 160 acres in Fayette County - SW 1/4 Section 22, Jennings Township; adjacent to the 1821 purchase.

Land records noted by TJP are, which may or not be our William:

From Clark's Index, Ohio lands south of the Indian boundary 
        (years unknown) -
        William Walker bought 2x200 (?) acres in Ross County by bond
        William Walker bought land in Twin township
        Wm Walker bought land in Twin Township
From Berry, "Early Ohio Land Purchases, 1800-1840 lists in volume 3:
        William Walker purchased land 1817, Franklin County, Indiana
        William Walker purchased land 1826, Union County, Indiana

(Franklin County abuts Fayette County on the south, and Union County is between Fayette County and the Ohio border.) The Cincinnati land office did handle early deeds to Indiana land in a narrow strip that bordered Ohio.

Virginia Military Reserve, Ohio

CORBET - 1800-1829

Jane Corbet married William Walker in Ohio in 1802 as mentioned under "Walker" above. She was a Methodist.

Continuing with TJP's Ross County Ohio information, the 1810 tax lists for Union township show both a William Corbett and a Charles Walker. This is very, very suggestive, almost enough to assume these two are our ancestors. But, William Corbett could be Jane's brother, uncle, etc.

Ross County marriage records (along with William and "Ginny") show:

Robert Corbet m. Polly Johnston Aug. 31, 1809, vol. GB p. 9
William Corbet m. Mary Walker Feb. 12, 1810, vol GB p. 18

Robert and William could be brothers of Jane; Mary could be a sister of William.

The 1820 Ohio Census, Ross County, shows the following names:

        Joseph Corbett, Scioto Township, page 234
        David Corbitt, Union Township, page 240

Worth mentioning here is TJP's analysis, who has done much research in this area:

"Since the marriage of William and Jane in 1802 was in Ross County, marriages are usually in the bride's home area, and this same Ross County 1810 tax list includes a William Corbett and a Charles Walker, both in Union Township. In addition, the marriage of William Corbett to Mary Walker in 1810 adds some strength for a theory of this William Corbet of the tax records as being the father of both a son William and our Jane, as well as indicating a strong connection between the two families, a situation not unusual in the early 1800s. There is also the possibility that this latter couple, married 1810, might be the parents of the James Corbit in the 1830 Census who was born in 1811 and married 1832 in Ross County to Ann Augustus. There is also a Robert Corbet who married Polly Johnston in 1809. Mary Walker above could be William Walker's sister."

DORSEY - 1800-1829

Sarah's father was a slaveholder according to notes by William Webster Hartsell.

The wife of the Thomas Dorsey we think we're descended from was Margaret, according to Fayette County, Indiana land records.

There are two Thomas Dorseys in the 1800 Maryland Census, but they were too old to be Sarah's father, because they were already head of a household at that time. One is Thomas Dorsey of Calvert County, Christ Church Parish. The other is Thomas B. Dorsey of Anne Arundel County. Perhaps a grandfather.

According to the census, there were many Dorseys in Maryland in the 1820s and 1830s and that most of them had slaves.

Sarah Dorsey, future wife of Joseph Walker, was born in Maryland in 1824. The 1910 Shelby County History and Middlesworth's 1969 "Excerpts of Shelby County IL Hist Bio" show the name of Joseph Walker's wife as Mary (Dorsey) Walker. Another case of nicknames, but the name on her gravestone is Sarah.

TJP relates a record of a Sarah Ann Dorsey born in 1824 in Maryland, Anne Arundel County, father Thomas Beale Dorsey, mother Milcah Goodwin. Our Sarah's middle initial was "W", but again, nicknames were common.

Abraham Lincoln attended a school in Spencer County, Indiana, sometime between 1816-1830 which was taught by Azel Dorsey.

HISTORY - 1800-1829

Wytheville, Virginia, was known for its valuable lead and salt mines, which became important to both sides during the Civil War. One attempt by Union troops to take the town was stopped by Molly Tynes, after she rode 40 miles over mountains to alert the home guard to come to its defense.

In present-day Wytheville, there is the Shot Tower / New River Trail State Park. The tower was built in 1807, resembles a fortress, and was once used to make lead shot. The lead was carried to the top room, melted and then poured through sieves with varying size meshes depending on the kind of shot desired. The sieved lead then fell about 150 feet into a large kettle of water; it was thought that the shot must fall this distance to become round.

Ohio gained statehood March 1, 1803, but had yet to designate a permanent capital. Political maneuvering almost landed the state government in such thriving communities as Zanesville and Chillicothe. In 1812 the residents of Franklinton, a county seat in the heart of Ohio along the Scioto River, tempted the state with 1,200 acres of land and a commitment to spend $50,000 to construct a capitol building and a penitentiary if that site was named capital. Within a matter of days the general assembly accepted the offer, and Columbus was born on the opposite bank of the river. By 1824 the county seat had shifted from Franklinton to Columbus. The State Capitol building was completed during the Civil War era. Chillicothe, founded in 1796, served as capital of the Northwest Territory and was governed by General Arthur St. Clair 1800-1802. It was host to the state's first constitutional convention in 1802.

The sourthern half of Indiana was settled mainly by pioneers moving up via Kentucky from Virginia and the Carolinas. In the northern half, they came through Ohio from New York and New England. In 1800, Vincennes had become the seat of government of the Indiana Territory. In 1811 the Battle of Tippecanoe was fought near Lafayette, Indiana against forces led by Tecumseh. Indiana had enough population (64,000) to become a state in December, 1816. Abraham Lincoln, at the age of 7, came with his parents from Kentucky in 1816 and settled in Spencer County (near the southern tip of Indiana) for 14 years, then moved to Illinois.

Richmond, Indiana was established in 1806 on the Whitewater River by Quakers from North Carolina and German immigrants. Around 1815 Connersville, Indiana was a small Indian station on the outposts of the white settlements.

See "History of Fayette County, Indiana" in the Appendix for more information.

Although Illinois was admitted as the 21st state of the Union on Dec. 3, 1818, the divisive issue of slavery was far from settled. The southern third of the state was populated by new arrivals from Kentucky, Tennessee and the Carolinas, who brought their Southern beliefs with them. The constitution of 1818 gave blacks the status of indentured servants -- slavery would have been legalized had there not been fear that such a move would prevent statehood.

The War of 1812 saw Old Ironsides & the Constitution, Francis Scott Key's National Anthem, and the burning of Washington.

1816 was the year of an unusual weather phenomenon. Mt. Tambora erupted and caused a blanket of airborne ash that went around the earth. Temperatures dropped. It was winter in summer. In the cold summer of 1816, David Hartzell was 10 years old.

Since matches did not come into general use until around 1830, starting a fire with flint and steel was a difficult task, so the fire had to be kept burning. The old expression "keep the home fires burning" came from this fact. As you can well imagine, this made the cabin very hot inside in the summer. There weren't any screens, either, so flies and mosquitoes added to their discomfort.

In 1820, a site in the wilderness at the center of Indiana was picked as the capitol to encourage people to settle the interior of the state. Indianapolis was laid out a year later on the site of Fall Creek, a swampy little settlement on the shallow White River. The National Road was not to come through until 1834.

Construction of the Cumberland (National) Road began in 1811. It followed Braddock's road and reached Wheeling, Pa. in 1818. Work was resumed in 1825, following Zane's Trace, to Zanesville, Ohio. Zane's Trace was a bridal path laid out by Ebenezer Zane in 1797 from Wheeling to Limestone (now Maysville, Kentucky), passing through present day Zanesville (on U.S. 40), veering south through Lancaster and Chillicothe, Ohio. The section east of Zanesville to Wheeling, Pa. later became part of the National Road. In 1804, Zanesville was the seat of Muskingum County, and in 1810-1812 it was the state capitol.

* * * * * * * 1830's * * * * * * *

HARTSELL - 1830's

See "Evidence for Ancestry of David Hartzell" and "The Life of David Hartzell 1805-1865" for the latest and more detailed information on David Hartzell.

The 1830 Ohio Census lists 23 Hartsell households.

The family was living in or around Ellerton, Ohio, six miles north of Germantown, Ohio. This is about 10 miles southwest of Dayton, Ohio. They were in about the same place as they were in 1820, judging by the names of neighbors in the 1820 and 1830 census.

The 1830 Census of Jefferson Township, Montgomerty County, Ohio has:

        Head of Household: Adam Hartsell (David's father)
        In household:
                male, age 60-69         (Adam)
                female, age 60-69       (Christina)                
                male, age 30-39 (20-29) (census error; possibly Daniel Hartzell)         
                male, age 30-39 (20-29) (census error; David Hartzell)

        Head of Household: Leonard Hartsell (Adam's son)
        In household:
                male, age 30-49         (Leonard)
                female, age 20-29       (Delilah Weiss)
                male, age under 5       (Willis?)
                male, age under 5       (Lewis?)
                male, age under 5       (Adam?)

        Head of Household: John Hartsell (Adam's son)
        In household:
                male, age 30-39         (John)
                female, age 20-29       (Susannah Heck)
                female, age 5-10
                female, age 5-10
                male, age under 5
                male, age under 5
                male, age under 5

For the census error mentioned above, the "Evidence" document has an image of that page for 1830 Jefferson Township, Montgomery County, Ohio. There are many corrections. Assuming that the census taker mis-marked age 20-29, many things fall into place. David Hartzell has not been found anywhere else in 1830. At age 24 and unmarried, David was most likely still at home. The other male was most likely a brother. Adam did not own land, so these two males were not likely to be live-in farm hands.

The 1830 Census of Marion County, Indiana (Indianapolis area) has:

        Head of Household: Frederick Hartsell (Adam's brother)
        In household:
                male, age 40-49         (Frederick)
                female, age 40-49       (Sarah Houghman)
                3 males 15-19           (Peter & Phillip?)
                2 males 10-14
                1 male 5-9
                1 female 10-14
                2 females 5-9
                2 females under 5

        In 1840, this Frederick was in Wayne Twp., along with sons
        Peter and Phillip in separage households.

The 1830 Census of Union County, Indiana has:

        Head of Household: George Hartzel (Adam's cousin)
        In household:
                male, age 40-49         (George, born 1780-90)
                female, age 30-39       (Susannah Toney)
                1 male 5-9
                1 male under 5
                1 female 10-14
                1 female 5-9
                1 female under 5

        This was the George who died soon after the census
        and whose executor and a primary benificiary was James Alexander.

According to the 1840 Census, David Hartzell had not attended school. It says he could read and write, but other sources say he could not.

In 1831, Barbara Nipp, at the age of 15, arrived with her family in the Connersville Indiana area (in Fayette County), according to her obituary.

This is roughly the orientation of the counties we're interested in; left is West:






The biggest link of David Hartzell to the Hartzells of Franklin County VA is this:
David named his first son James Alexander Hartzell. TJP found a James Alexander (last name Alexander) in 1830-40 Union County Indiana who was executor and a primary beneficiary of the estate of George Hartzell who died in 1830. The widow was Susannah Hartzell. According to the Gene Pool Individual Records, JDH found this was Susannah Toney, who married George Hartzell in Franklin County Virginia in 1809, and died in Union County, Indiana, date unknown. In the inventory were a lot of shoemaking tools; George was presumably a shoemaker and so was David.

This George was Adam's cousin, son of John and Catherine (Schneider) Hartzell. James Alexander was obviously very close to both George and David. Or, all this is an incredible coincidence, with David picking both "James" and "Alexander" for his son's name.

On Oct. 10, 1828, this George Hartsell had purchased 160 acres 2 miles east of Kitchell, Indiana in Union County. It was the SW 1/4 of Section 24 in Harrison Township, in the NE corner of the county, and 1/2 mile from the Ohio border.

David's brother Leonard bought land in September,1832 in NW Rush County, Indiana, 2.5 miles east of the present town of Carthage. It was in Center Township, 46 acres, in Section 22. He sold this in 1835. In March 1840, he bought the S 1/2 of the NE 1/4 of Section 16 in Ripley Township, 1/2 mile from his 1832 land. He sold this land in 1844, and also signing was William Hartsell (unknown relationship). Between 1844 and 1850, he moved to Wabash County, Indiana. There were other apparent relatives in that county. (Leonard died in 1878 in Iowa, perhaps near where uncle Frederick died in 1855 in Keokuk, Lee County, Iowa - far SE corner of the state.)

We had wondered how David Hartzell met Barbara Nipp when he was seemingly in Fayette County, while she was apparently living with her uncle George in Rush County. The "Leonard connection" may explain it. David could have gone there at first with Leonard, and maybe George Nipp lived nearby and/or they went to the same church. George Nipp's 1837 land just NE of Rushville was 8 miles from Leonard's. There could have been a church between them. David could have met Barbara through visits to Leonard. Or, David may have had a shoemaking shop in Rushville, with George Nipp living nearby.

By 1835, David Hartzell seemed to be established in or near Connersville, Indiana. Maybe this was a bigger town, and maybe he had a shoemaking shop there. The biographical sketch of James A. Hartsell in the Appendix says David "made his way there from Ohio". He probably traveled on what is now Route 44 or he may have traveled on the Old National Road (now U.S. 40) out of Dayton, Ohio. This road, the first overland route west, was surveyed and trees & brush were cleared for its first traffic through Indiana by 1832. It entered Indiana at Richmond, went through Indianapolis, through Terre Haute, and on into Illinois. The road passed through Cambridge City, about 12 miles north of Connersville.

In 1835, David Hartzell was 29 years old and he was courting 19 year old Barbara Nipp. On May 15, 1836, they were married in Connersville. He was 30, she was 20. The minister who performed the wedding ceremony was George Harlan, M.G. (Regularly ordained minister of the gospel in the Church of Christ).

A month later Barbara became pregnant and therefore was pregnant through the winter of 1836-37. On March 18, 1837, James Alexander Hartsell was born. David Hartzell was now 32 years old and Barbara was 22.

A year later, on March 11, 1838, David and Barbara Hartzell had a baby daughter, and they named her Margaret.

David's daughter Rebecca Ann Hartzell was born in October, 1839, according to her great-granddaughter Evelyn Gordon.

David and Barbara Hartzell appear to have made their first home about 2 1/2 miles east of present day Connersville along what is now Route 44. Why we think this will be explained soon when we get to 1840. He could very well have been living on Walker land. David's occupation is presumed to be shoemaker.

Recap on where David Hartzell's family were in the 1830's:

father Adam: had died?
mother Christina: had died?
Phillip: m. Mont. Co. OH, moved to Miami Co. OH
Jacob: had remained in Virginia
John: in Mont. Co. OH
Elizabeth (Betsy): in Mont. Co. OH
Catherine (Kate):
Leonard: m. in Mont. Co. OH, moved to Rush Co. IN
George: moved to Miama Co. OH
David: m. in Mont. Co. OH, moved to Fayette Co. IN

NIPP - 1830's

In the 1830 Virginia census, we have:

        Wythe County, page 345
        Head of Household: Phillip Nipp 
        In household:
                male, age 50-59         (Phillip)
                female, age 40-49       probably 2nd wife Nancy
                female 15-19            Milly?
                female 10-14            Barbara (our ancestor)?
                female 10-14            Christena?
                female 5-9              Rebecca?
                female under 5          Rachel?

        1st wife Catherine must have died by this time.
        Son Andrew is not listed (probably the eldest).

From Mary B. Kegley: "On November 8, 1830, the court orders has this item which was published in my Vol. 3 of Abstracts of court orders of Wythe County,VA. 1821-1830, on page 161. It states: Andrew Nip, Milly Nip, BARBARA Nip, children of Philip Nip by his wife Catherine are upwards of age 14 and chose Philip Nip their guardian and he was appointed for Christena and Rebecca, who are under age 14 years. No other explanation or information, but this gives you the names of her brothers and sisters as well. There are many reasons to have guardians appointed: (1) mother had died (2) the children were to inherit from an estate (3) mother deserted them, and perhaps many others. If just one child who was under age they have to have a guardian to give permission for marriage. etc. etc."

Somewhere around this time Catherine must have died, and somewhere around this time Phillip married his second wife Nancy (named in the 1850 census). Perhaps one or both of these are the reasons for the guardianship thing.

From this court order we get many important and fascinating clues. The most important for us is that it specifically names the children of Phillip Nipp as of Nov. 1830, or as of whatever time the court proceedings actually happened. It specifically names Andrew, Milly, and Barbara as children "by his wife Catherine". This is "our" Barbara, and therefore her mother Catherine is our ancestor.

Also important to us are the names Christena and Rebecca. This information links this Phillip to the Catherine Lindemuth shown on the Clifton's web page. It also links to Hamilton's web page which shows Teany (Christena) born in 1817 in Wythe County, Rachel and Rebecca as children of Phillip and Nancy, and that Phillip married Nancy before 1825.

The court order implies that the three youngest girls are not by Phillip's wife Catherine, but no proof of this. The female under 5 in the census must be the Rachel named by Hamilton and the Cliftons.

Barbara was apparently still in Wythe county for the 1830 census, and also for the Nov. 1830 court order for guardianship. If Barbaraís obituary is accurate, it says she "emigrated to Fayette County Indiana at the age of 15", so that would have been in 1831 (she was born in Dec.), and after the guardianship court order. Did this have something to do with her move? She had to have gone with someone. Did Phillip leave and return to Wythe County by 1840?

Barbara married David Hartzell on May 15, 1836 in Connersville, Indiana. They must have courted for a year or more, so Barbara must have been in the Connersville area by the summer of 1834-35. Who was she living with up to the marriage? Was Phillip in the Connersville area 1831-1836? After Barbara married did Phillip return to Virginia? What role did George of 1812 Indiana play in all this?

"Uncle" George Nipp had moved to Rush County by 1830, just west of Fayette County, and that seems a little far for Barbara and David to have met and courted. Since this is the only Nipp we know of in the area, and since George may have been a relative of Barbara, here is his 1830 Indiana census information:

        Rush County, Indiana, 1830, page 302
        Head of Household: George Nipp
        In household:
                male, age 50-59 (George)
                female, 40-49   (Rebecca as indicated in 1850 census)
                male 15-19      John?
                female 15-19    Jane?
                female 10-14    Anna?
                female 10-14    Martha?
                male 5-9        William?
                male under 5    Leonidas?
                male under 5    Reuben?
        Nancy would have been about 21 and probably married.
        John's biographical sketch is in the Appendix, which
        names the children.

LINDEMUTH - 1830's

Johannes Lindemuth, father of Catherine and grandfather of Barbara, died about 1831 in Wythe County Virginia. This is the same year that Barbara had supposedly moved to Fayette County Indiana.

WALKER - 1830's

William Walker is listed in the 1830 Indiana Census in Fayette County:

Head of household: William Walker; page 34
        1 male  50-60     (William, 53)
        1 male  20-30     (son William, 24)
        3 males 15-20     (Joseph, Alex, 1 unknown)
        1 male   10-15    (Willis)
        2 males   5-10    (James, Samuel)
        1 male  under 5   (John)
        1 female 40-50    (wife Jane, 47)
        1 female 15-20    (Francis)
        1 female under 5  (Jane/Louisa)
        William would be 53.
        Jane would be 47.
        Henry, 27, was married in 1826.
        William the son would be 24
        Joseph and Alex at 16 and 14 almost fit the 15-20 grouping.
        Willis at 11 fits 10-15.
        James and Samuel, 5 and 6, fit 5-10.
        John, 2, is under 5.
        Frances would be 15.
        One female under 5 could be Jane/Louisa who "died young".
        There is one male 15-20, which could easily be a hired hand or
          a relative (David Hartzell would be 24).

Note the 1833 deaths shown in the Springersville Cemetery information in the appendix. Three of Joseph's siblings died in July and August, and his nephew (son of Henry) died in July. There appears to have been an epidemic.

The 1830 Illinois Census has several Walkers in Shelby County, including a William 70-80 years old, William 30-40, James 40-50, Samuel 40-50. Ages don't match any of "ours", these could have been relatives. Keep in mind that Walker is a fairly common name.

In 1837 Joseph Walker went West and spent two months engaged in trading, visiting different parts of what was then considered the far West. At the end of that time he returned to Fayette County, Indiana, and launched into the business of buying and selling cattle and hogs, finding his market in Cincinnati, and driving the stock over the public highway.

CORBET - 1830's

It is worth noting here that the 1830 Ohio Census shows the following names:

David Corbet, Ross County, Union Township, page 216 (same man as in 1820?)
Joseph Corbet, Ross County, Union Township, page 213 (Joseph James?)
Samuel Corbett, Fayette County, Jefferson Township, page 304

Notes: from marriage records, David and James could be Jane Corbet's brothers.

DORSEY - 1830's

TJP's analysis relates that if the 1840 census is accurate, Sarah Dorsey had at least seven siblings. "If my connection through the 1850 census is correct, sibling birthplaces would indicate that the family was in Maryland as late as around 1832, that they were in Ohio around 1833, and that they were in Indiana around 1834".

The 1830 Indiana Census (p. 66) shows a Thomas Dorsey in Clark County; no township is given. He and his wife were both 40-49 years old, thus born 1781-1790, which is in the ballpark. There were two young girls in the household age 5 - 9, which would include Sarah's age of 6. Starting with the oldest, there was one male 20-29, one male 15-19, one male 10-14, and two males 5-9. There were two females 15-19, and two females 5-9. We don't know if they were all his children.

On May 22, 1835, a Thomas Dorsey bought 25 acres of land for $200 in Waterloo Township, Fayette County, Indiana. It was part of the NE 1/4 of Section 4 (Deed Record Book H, page 154). This is significant, because it is not far from his future son-in-law Joseph Walker. He sold the land Feb. 20, 1837 for $400.

HISTORY - 1830's

One of the things that David Hartzell must have witnessed was the construction of the Whitewater Canal down the west fork of the Whitewater River. It was started in 1836 and completed in 1846. This canal connected residents of the Connersville area with the National Road at Cambridge City, 12 miles to the north.

In 1831, the first railroad locomotive, the Dewitt Clinton, was built. At the same time, when David Hartzell was 25 years old, the Battle of the Alamo took place, where Davy Crocket and Jim Bowie were killed. John McCormick invented his reaper in 1834. Andrew Jackson was President 1829-1837, and Martin Van Buren was President 1837-1841 (when James A. Hartsell was born). Up until 1837, plows had been made of wood, but in 1837 John Deere developed the first steel plow.

Let's take a look at what life was like in Indiana around 1835, when the U.S. Government thought the land west of the Mississipi River was useless to the white man and declared it the permanent home of the Indian, and when David Hartzell was thirty years old. This is a quote from somewhere:

"Most of the early pioneers of Indiana made or grew almost everything they used, for manufactured articles were at a premium in the early days of the state. The goods sold in stores, shipped down the river from Pittsburgh and Cincinnati or up from New Orleans, were costly for people who had to depend chiefly upon barter instead of money. Their cloth of wool and flax was spun in their own homes. In summer, adults as well as children went barefooted most of the time, and in winter, those who could not afford to buy boots and were incapable of making them wore shoepacks and moccasins and leggings. Corn, game, and pork were the principal items of diet. Whiskey, made in stills in the woods, was the universal drink, imbibed straight by the men and in diluted toddies by the women. Tobacco was grown, cured, and consumed on the farm. Soap was made with the lye from wood ashes. Such items as knives, axes, chains, guns, gunpowder, pins and needles could not be manufactured at home, but because roads were few and poor and distances were great, trips to village stores and artisans were occasions to be long postponed and prepared for.

"In those days, living in towns and villages differed very little from living in the woods, except that stores were more conveniently at hand and neighbors could be quickly called upon in emergencies. In some respects, because townspeople lived closer together, town life was worse than farm life, for there were no sewage systems and no community removal of trash and garbage, and animals in towns ran at large just as they roamed unrestrained in the country. Consequently sanitation was a problem, and the lack of it was a constant threat to comfort as well as health. Cholera, smallpox, and typhoid epidemics were frequent, and there were no hospitals where the sick could be isolated and cared for. Stumps and mudholes obstructed the streets, which were unpaved except occasionally in the centers of towns, where cobblestones and wooden blocks were sometimes used. Sidewalks were cowpaths, sometimes boarded but generally not. Liquid mud made both streets and walks impassable after heavy rains. Yet such rains were often welcomed if only because they washed away collected offal and the carcasses of dead animals. A "gully-washer" was better than a "sod-soaker", but best of all was a "trash-mover".

"No public lighting systems illuminated the streets of towns, although sometimes merchants and tavern keepers hung lamps outside their establishments, and no water systems served the inhabitants, except in a few of the more enterprising places such as Brookville, where in 1820 a three-inch pipeline of green sycamore saplings was laid to a spring in the hills nearby. Cisterns, open wells, rain barrels, and town pumps supplied communities with water for washing and drinking. Fire departments were no more than neighborhood bucket brigades. Each house had its outdoor privy, but men generally scourned the use of such facilities as effeminate and betook themselves to the alleys and bushes. In summer, townspeople lived with swarms of flies on their food at the table and on their faces at night and accepted gnats and mosquitoes as inescapable evils in their houses, window screens not yet being invented.

"Like the countrymen, the village dweller usually raised his own food in a kitchen garden, and kept a cow and pigs and a horse. Many supported themselves by farming tracts of land near their villages, unless they happened to be lawyers, bankers, preachers, tradesmen, or craftsmen such as tanners, cobblers, and blacksmiths, for none of the towns of that era was large enough to support commerce of any significance. Vincennes, for example, had a population of only three thousand when the Lincolns came to Indiana, and New Albany and Madison and Jeffersonville were even smaller. As late as the outbreak of the Civil War, Indiana's largest community, Indianapolis, was inhabited by less than 20,000 people." ...End of quote.

Since Illinois is about to enter the family picture, what is happening over there around this time during the 1830's? Out in what was still being called the Far West, Illinois was slowly becoming populated along it's western rivers and in the extreme south. Total state population was now only 160,000 people. The village of Chicago began in 1833 with five dwelling houses. Many Indians were still in Illinois in 1833. They were in full possession of the land for 50 miles around Mattoon, and there had been an Indian war at Galena in 1832 (far northwest corner of Illinois). The Indians were finally "persuaded" to move west of the Mississippi after 1833. New settlers, mostly German, were coming in from the south by way of rivers, where steamboats had just come into use. Typical houses were 1 or 2 room log cabins with dirt floors. Cooking was done in an open fireplace at one end of the cabin. Abraham Lincoln was a captain in the Illinois Militia in 1832 near Peoria. Good farming help in Illinois earned $120.00 a year plus room & board. An example of food prices: eggs 6 cents a dozen, beef 3 cents a pound, wheat 37 cents a bushel, sugar 10 cents a pound, chickens 1 dollar a dozen, butter 10 cents a pound, Indian corn 10 cents a bushel.

A massive influx of Yankees and European immigrants in the 1830's and 1840's brought cultural diversity and abolitionist sentiment to the northern and central sections of the state.

In Gordon (?-TJP) p. 46-8: "In 1832, a stage coach road was opened from Paris (Ill.) to Hillsboro... And over the muddy thoroughfare came... the drovers, driving to market huge herds of cattle, hogs, and sheep... Buyers... went through the country purchasing stock for as little as they could. With the aid of hired assistants, they drove the animals to Chicago, St. Louis, Alton, Terre Haute, or whatever point they considered the best market."

Construction of the Cumberland (National) Road continued through Ohio and Indiana but was halted during Jackson's administration (1829-1836), and resumed under Martin Van Buren (1837-1841). The road reached Indianapolis in 1834. (??) It reached Vandialia, Illinois, in 1840. According to one account it was well constructed with a macadamized surface and stone bridges.

* * * * * * * 1840's * * * * * * *

HARTSELL - 1840's

See "The Life of David Hartzell 1805-1865" for the latest (and corrected) information on David.

Here is the verbatim 1840 Fayette County Indiana Census report on David Hartzell:

        Jennings Township, page 105 or 205
        Head of household:  David Hartsel, employed in manufactures &
        In household:
                1 male 30 or over, and under 40
                1 male under 5
                1 female 20 or over, and under 30
                2 females under 5

Notes: This matches with David, Barbara, James A., Margaret, and Rebecca.

Rush County is immediately west of Fayette County. If David Hartzell had a brother, he could be listed there. Names we know about are:

        Leonard Hartzell:
                bought land Sept. 17, 1832; Book E page 247, Center Twp.
                sold land Oct. 29, 1835; Book G page 320, 
                bought land Mar. 9, 1840; Book K page 396, Ripley Twp.
                        (wife Delila and Leonard Hartzell signed)
                sold land Mar. 13, 1844; Book O page 346, Ripley Twp.
                        (wife's name Delila; "William" Hartsell signed)

        Christian Hertsel:
                bought land Aug. 15, 1840; Book M page 327, Walker Twp.
                bought land Dec. 21, 1848; Book R page 237, Walker Twp.
                bought land June 25, 1851; Book T page 317 

Since we have not found land records for David Hartzell prior to 1853 (at the age of 48), it seemed we'd never know where he lived before that time, but several lucky breaks came together. Hanging in the main hallway of the Connersville courthouse (in 1998) is a large original map of Fayette County, 1856. Someone there had found it in the attic. It shows all the landowners & their land, and it even shows David Hartzell's name on the map where we figured him to be. There is at least 1250 acres of Walker family land on the map. Even though the map is yellowed and hard to read, it is a snapshot in time, and shows the roads that existed then, churches, streams, etc. Incredibile stroke of luck! In 1983, JDH took pictures of the map, but just of Connersville, Waterloo and Jennings townships. In 1998, JDH got pictures of the entire county. There is part of the 1856 map in the 1850's History section.

JDH photographing the 1856 plat map

Now, since census takers record information on households in the order that they were visited, we can trace his/her route and find where David Hartzell lived with respect to his neighbors who owned land.

In August of 1840 David Hartzell and his family of 5 was living 3 miles east of Connersville in Jennings township, according to the 1840 Census, where he was a shoemaker by trade.

David Hartzell was 35 years old, married 4 years, with 3 year old son James, 2 year old Margaret, and baby daughter Rebecca. He did not own land at this time, as far as we can tell. Tracing the Census taker's route against the 1856 map, and starting from what is now Springersville, the census taker went west 2 miles (on the road that now angles south towards Connersville) to the western border of Jennings township. He went over to what is now farm road 200E in Connersville township, south on 200E, then back east on what is now Route 44 to get back into Jennings township. From here he continued east along Route 44 to where road signs now point to Springersville and Lyonsville. Farm road 325E between Route 44 and the Springersville-Connersville road did not exist in 1856. The census taker went north on farm road 450E to return to Springersville, then came back south to continue the census south of Route 44.

David Hartzell was living along a dirt road that is now Route 44, in Section 28, very likely on Alex Walker's land, 1.5 miles from the land he later bought in 1853. He lived within 1/4 mile on either side of a point along Route 44 which is 2.5 miles east of where Route 44 now crosses over the Whitewater River in Connersville. His neighbors going west were Benjamin Clark, Jack Williams, and William Walker. Going east, his neighbors were Isabella Morrow, Henry Simpson, and Samuel Riggs. William Walker, Henry Simpson and Samuel Riggs owned adjacent land which straddled Route 44, so the other people listed must have been renting (each had a separate dwelling-place) from one of these three landowners.

David's family continued to grow. Daughter Barbara Hartsell was Oct. 30, 1842. Another son, William Hartsell, was born April 16, 1848.

Leonard moved around 1845 from Rush County to Wabash County, Indiana, about 100 miles away, north of Marion, Indiana. James A. Hartsell was only 7 years old, so this may explain why there is no family record of David's brother Leonard. David probably didn't pack up the whole family if and when he went to visit his brother. Note that the 1840 census shows an Adam Hartsell (not David's father) in Wabash County, Noble Twp., the same township where Leonard was in the 1850 census. Adam was not there in 1850.

On this same note, David's father and mother had probably died before David's children were born, so the children never knew their grandparents.

NIPP - 1840's

Barbara Nipp was now married to David Hartzell. Her father Phillip was in Virginia.

In the 1840 Virginia census, we have:

        Wythe County, page 85
        Head of Household: Phillip Nipp 
        In household:
                male, age 70-79         (Phillip)
                female, age 60-69       2nd wife Nancy
                female 20-29            Christena?
                female 10-14            Rachel?

        Phillipís age could have been mis-marked.
        Unlisted Milly may have married (was 25-29 years old).
        Unlisted Rebecca was 15-19 years old - married?

The following is from Mary Kegley. We're not sure if this is our ancestor Phillip, but it might explain why Barbara moved to Indiana so young. We don't know of any other Phillip Knipp in Wythe County. Our ancestor was born in 1775, so the marriage date of 1797 below would be reasonable. Plus, he was in the 1850 census (age 75); in 1848 he would have been 73.

"What I saw in the court order books, beginning on June 9, 1840, was that the court allowed $10 for Philip Knipp's support. This continued each June from 1841-1847 with the amounts increased to $20 and later to $25. In July 1848, the amount was $10 but in September of the same year he was furnished provisions valued at $15 for a total of $25. It would appear that he was unable to support himself for some reason or other (sickness, disability, old age, poverty, or ??) and the county helped him out. I wonder if he would be Barbara's father. He was married in 1797 and it seems strange that he would still be living in 1848, but I suppose that is possible. - Mary"

Page 156 of Mary's book, Lost Children of Wythe County, VA:
June 9, 1840, overseers of the poor to furnish Phillip Knipp with 15 bushels of wheat on his application at the Poor House.

"Uncle" George Nipp was still living in Rush County, Rushville Township, Indiana.

LINDEMUTH - 1840's

Nothing on Lindemuth for this time period.

WALKER - 1840's

1840 Fayette County Indiana Census report on William Walker, Sr.:

        Jennings Township, page 203/104
        Head of household: William Walker, engaged in agriculture, 
        none in school.
        In household:
                1 male   60-70          
                2 males  20-30
                1 male   15-20
                1 male   10-15
                1 female 50-60

Notes: This matches William, Jane, Joseph, Willis, James or Samuel (one of them missing), and John. Also unaccounted for is William, who would be 7.

Joseph Walker, at the age of 28, lived in Shelby County, Illinois in 1842, but his stay was comparatively short, according to the biographical sketch. In company with another man, he had purchased 20,000 acres of land in Kansas. By 1847, he returned to Fayette County, Indiana.

The 1891 biographical sketch says that Joseph was in the business of buying and selling cattle and hogs, driving the stock to Cincinnati over public roads (no railroad).

On Sept. 20, 1847, Joseph Walker married Sarah W. Dorsey, near Connersville, Indiana. Joseph was 33 years old, and Sarah was 23.

Sophronia Walker was born June 15, 1849. Her mother Sarah died 2 years later, after 3 years of marriage. Sophronia never really knew her mother.

Here is another significant detail. On Dec. 28, 1849, Joseph Walker bought land in Shelby County, Illinois (from an abstract on DVH's grandfather Chamber's farm). This land purchase was nearly eleven years before David Hartzell's family moved from Indiana to Illinois, accompanied by Joseph Walker. The biographical sketch on Joseph says he settled permanently in Shelby County in 1859.

CORBET - 1840's information for Corbet in the 1840's...

DORSEY - 1840's

Here is the verbatim 1840 Fayette County Indiana Census report on Thomas Dorsey:

        Waterloo Township, page 59
        Head of household: Thomas Dorsey.
        In household:
                2 males 5-9
                1 male 10-14
                1 male 40-49
                2 females under 5
                2 females 10-14
                1 female 15-19
                1 female 30-39
        Notes:  If this is Sarah's family, she would be age 16, which 
        fits the 15-19 year old female.

Important - Thomas Dorsey is listed four names above Henry Walker. This proximity to the Walker's lends weight to the possibility of his being Sarah's father.

The 1850 Indiana census mortality schedule records the death in Fayette County, Waterloo Township of a Thomas Dorsey in 1849. This Thomas, born in Maryland, died Sept. 1849 at the age of 52, giving him an estimated birthdate of 1797. He would have been 43 in 1850, which fits the census report above. The record also says "widowed, farmer, died of dropsy, ill 56 days". (Dropsy is "edema", an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in connective tissue or in a serous cavity.)

Important TJP comment: "Thomas is listed as a widower, and the small children indicated in the 1840 census are not living with Joseph and Sarah, so we would have to assume that an older sibling was keeping the family together or that the small ones were all elsewhere". See the 1850's section for the Dorsey census report that fits the keeping together of the family.

HISTORY - 1840's

Formal construction of the National Road (now U.S. 40 as mentioned before) was pushing through Indiana in 1847. Since 1832 it was hardly nothing more than a trail. Bridges were added over streams, and a plank and corduroy roadbed (?) was laid. The first steam locomotive arrived in Indianapolis in 1847.

Over in Illinois, during the 1840's, the total state population had now grown to 476,000, while Chicago had 4,850 people. Log cabins were still the most common dwelling. Only southernmost Illinois, and the western half along the Illinois River, and the area around Chicago was settled. Due to a drought in the east, wheat was now 50 cents a bushel (up from 37). Congress made a land grant of 2,600,000 acres to support construction of a railroad from Galena to Cairo, and, in an effort to get east-central Illinois settled, for a branch line from Centralia to Chicago (through Mattoon area). McCormick, who invented the reaper in 1834, started a manufacturing plant in Chicago in 1847. Abraham Lincoln was now a Whig congressman.

One thing that most surprised the newcomers to Illinois was the unusual lack of trees and brush in the vast open prairies. The reason for this was the method of hunting used by the Indians years before. They would set fire to the prairie to cause wild game to flee so they could kill it for food. To get buffalo, they would set a large ring of fire but leave an opening through which the buffalo would run to their death. After years and years of these fires, trees and brush were completely wiped out. The result was a very tought grassy sod that took 6 to 8 oxen to pull a plow through for the first plowing.

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